Comparing Postsecondary Options (Infographic)

The postsecondary options after high school can be confusing. Here is a comparison of the most common routes for recent high school graduates.

Keep in mind that these routes are not permanent or exclusive, and choosing one route doesn’t rule out other options if a student would like to pursue an additional or different path later.

Infographic: Comparing Postsecondary Options

Download this infographic as a PDF.

  Workforce Military Short-Term Education Apprenticeship Public Four-Year College Private Four-Year College
Description Full-time employment directly after high school · Before or instead of pursuing a college education

· Military academies

· Short professional programs

· Certificate programs

· 9-month, one-year, two-year college programs

Up to six-year programs Rely on government funding as well as tuition and fees from students Rely on tuition, fees and private sources for funding
Average Cost $100–$1,000 $0 $5,000–$20,000 $0 $47,000–$90,000 $77,000–$140,000
Potential Earnings Starting: $18,023

Mid-career: $31,239

Starting: $19,199

Mid-career: $41,958

Starting: $24,030

Mid-career: $44,056

Starting: $20,025

Mid-career: $47,098

Starting: $20,025

Mid-career: $47,098

Starting: $20,025

Mid-career: $47,098

Required May need related job experience or certain skills · ASVAB test

· Fitness and health standards

· Background check

·  Requirements vary by program

· Placement tests

· Requirements vary by program

· May be minimum age

· May require community college acceptance

· Minimum SAT/ACT score and GPA

· Core high school classes

· Application (sometimes with essay, interviews and letters of recommendation)

· Minimum SAT/ACT score and GPA

· Core high school classes

· Application (sometimes with essay, interviews and letters of recommendation)

Typical Jobs • Accounting clerk

• Animal caretakers

• Childcare

• Clerical, administrative, office clerk

• Customer service representatives

• Driver

• Food services

• Maintenance and janitorial

• Retail worker

 

• Administration

• Aviation

• Combat officer

• Construction

• Engineering

• Health care

• Intelligence

• Mechanical and maintenance

• Public affairs and media relations

 

• Auto mechanic

• Barber

• Chef

• Computer tech

• Cosmetologist

• Court reporter

• Dental assistant

• Fitness trainer

• Nursing or home health aide

• Pharmacy tech

 

• Carpenter

• Electrician

• HVAC installation and repair

• Machinist

• Mason

• Pipefitter

• Plumber

• Sheet metal worker

• Tool and die worker

• Airline pilot

• Architect

• Computer programmer

• Educator

• Engineer

• Financial specialist

• Graphic designer

• Reporter or correspondent

• Writer or editor

 

• Airline pilot

• Architect

• Computer programmer

• Educator

• Engineer

• Financial specialist

• Graphic designer

• Reporter or correspondent

• Writer or editor

 

Sources:

  • Average Cost of Workforce includes the cost of work clothes, transportation to interviews and printing resumes.
  • Average Cost of Public and Private Four-Year College are based on the 2011–2012 net lowest and highest cost of attendance (after discounts on the published costs) per year multiplied by four years.
  • All other Average Cost information is based on figures available online for Iowa programs.
  • Potential Earnings for Workforce are the 15th and 50th percentile salaries from U.S. Census Bureau 2015 PUMS data (1 year sample) – educational attainment up to high school diploma.
  • Potential Earnings for Military are private (E1) and first lieutenant (O2) from https://www.goarmy.com/benefits/money/basic-pay-active-duty-soldiers.html.
  • Potential Earnings for Short-Term Education are the 15th and 50th percentile salaries from U.S. Census Bureau 2015 PUMS data (1 year sample) – educational attainment of associate degree.
  • Potential Earnings for Apprenticeship are the 15th and 50th percentile salaries from U.S. Census Bureau 2015 PUMS data (1 year sample) – educational attainment of some college.
  • Potential Earnings for Public and Private Four-Year College are the 15th and 50th percentile salaries from U.S. Census Bureau 2015 PUMS data (1 year sample) – educational attainment of bachelor’s degree.

By: Iowa Student Loan

Five Advantages to Working During Breaks

If you need to build up savings for college and living expenses, think about a job during holiday and spring breaks.

Here are five advantages to working during school breaks.

Maintain your regular study schedule.

Because you don’t have classes to take up a large part of your day, you can often dedicate a large chunk of time to your job. If your break also falls between school terms, you can devote even more hours to earning money since you won’t have studying or homework to do.

Build up earnings.

You may be able to work 40 or more hours a week to maximize your earnings in a short period of time. Even better, while you’re working many hours, you have less time and opportunity to spend your earnings, so you’re able to save more to reach your financial goals.

Take advantage of openings.

Many employers need extra, short-time help to deal with the increased workload during the holidays. Besides standing behind a cash register, you may be able to find positions to help with stocking, holiday displays, returns and exchanges, or filling in for others who are on vacation. Seasonal employment is also more widely available.

Gain work experience.

You may find it easier to land a paid internship or co-op position for a short break than you would for an entire semester or school term. Even jobs that aren’t directly tied to your intended career can provide valuable transferrable skills.

Create a relationship.

As a reliable seasonal employee, you may be able to return to the same position, or more advanced positions with the same employer, break after break. You may even be able to land a permanent position or develop a network of mentors who will help you after college graduation.

See additional ideas for making money during breaks.

By: Iowa Student Loan

After the Award: Why Grades Matter for Financial Aid

AftertheAward_GradesMatterforFinAid

You know that awesome feeling you experienced when you realized your grants and scholarships will cover a hefty chunk of your college cost? The relief that now you could focus more on college life instead of solely on your grades?

Not so fast. You should know your grades will likely still matter if you want to keep your aid each year. Here’s why.

1. You may need a minimum GPA to renew certain scholarships and grants.

Many renewable or multiyear scholarships and grants require you to maintain a minimum GPA in college to renew the award. The exact GPA required each semester or term will depend on several factors, such as:

  • The minimum GPA set by the entity that provided the award. Make sure you understand the requirements for each renewable award. Also, check whether there is a probationary period if you fall below the minimum and whether that must occur in your first year or you may use it any time.
  • Whether you need to maintain a certain cumulative GPA or a minimum each term. If you need to keep a minimum cumulative GPA, one semester of poor grades can affect your eligibility for several additional terms.
  • The grading system for your classes. Some colleges award whole grade points only, so an 89% and an 81% course grade are both Bs and are both worth 3.0 points (often called “quality points”) on a 4.0 grading scale. Others award partial points for a letter grade with a + or a -, so an 89% course grade may be a B+ worth 3.33 while an 81% may be a B- worth 2.67 on a 4.0 scale. Still other colleges allow professors to choose which system to use as long as they provide the grading system in the course materials. Know where you need to fall on the scale and whether it’s worth the effort to bring a low B up to a high B in one class versus concentrating on bringing a high B up to a low A in another.

2. You definitely need a minimum GPA to continue to qualify for state and federal aid for additional years.

If you want to receive financial aid, including work-study, grants, scholarships and loans, from the state and federal governments, you need to fill out a FAFSA each year. In addition, you need to show Satisfactory Academic Progress (SAP). Each school has its own guidelines and process for SAP, but they may include:

  • A minimum GPA.
  • A required number of credit hours each year, semester or term.
  • A warning or probationary period after falling below the minimum GPA.
  • An appeal process for extenuating circumstances affecting your GPA.

The U.S. Department of Education provides more information on how grades affect federal financial aid. Visit your financial aid office or your college’s website for information on its SAP policies.

3. You may need to repay scholarships or grants.

In some cases, you may be expected to repay at least part of the award if you:

  • Do not attend classes or withdraw from school after a certain date.
  • Drop below full-time.
  • Do not pass enough credit hours in a given time period.

If you are experiencing difficulty in college, even if circumstances are beyond your control, make sure you understand any penalties regarding your financial aid. Your college’s financial aid and academic advising offices can help you determine your options.

By: Iowa Student Loan

Exploring Careers with Your Student

This step-by-step guide can help you and your student explore available careers and decide on possible choices that suit his or her interests.

Discuss Possible Careers

Your student may understand what you and other adults in life do for a living, and they are likely aware of many other popular career choices like doctor, lawyer, educator and accountant. But they may not understand the wide variety of jobs currently available or possible in the near future. Here are some ways you can help your student discover more possibilities:

  • Point out less well-known professions as you observe them in daily life.
  • Mention the jobs held by relatives and associates. Be specific about job duties instead of using general descriptors like “She works with computers,” or “He works in an office.”
  • Ask acquaintances more about their careers within your child’s hearing.
  • Encourage your student to research job titles and related duties. Classified ads and job websites can indicate the most popular jobs today.

Determine Interests

Help your student connect his or her own growing interests with possible careers. One way to do this is through career interest assessments. Some to try:

Understand Related Careers

Once your student better understands his or her current interests and the type of job that they may be interested in, it’s time to look at other related careers. These can be careers within the same field or they may simply share similar characteristics or duties. The U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Outlook Handbook may be a good place to start. For each career, it provides:

  • Starting and median pay
  • Required education, training and work experience
  • Current number of jobs
  • Job outlook
  • Job duties or activities
  • Work environment
  • State and area data
  • Similar occupations

Experience Actual Jobs

To help your student understand whether a particular career would be appealing eight hours a day and five days a week, encourage him or her to work with current employees in that field. Adult professionals are often willing to share information with students who express interest in their jobs. Encourage your student to explore careers through:

  • Job shadowing
  • Volunteering
  • Internships
  • Informational interviews
  • Club activities
  • Online research

Connect Skills to Duties

As your student narrows down possible careers, he or she should think about the skills that can be developed now to prepare for those careers. Some skills are industry specific and can be obtained through academic classes or club activities, while others are transferable to many different fields. Some skills highly prized by employers are:

  • Teamwork
  • Time management
  • Leadership
  • Self-motivation
  • Decision-making
  • Communication
  • Interpersonal

Make a Plan

Help your student come up with a flexible and ongoing plan to achieve career goals. The plan can be revisited as your child’s interests develop and other circumstances change. Some concepts to include in the plan are:

  • Job outlooks
  • Geographical influences
  • Entry level and mid-career salaries for related careers
  • Cost of the education required to obtain a specific career
  • Academic and technical preparation

By: Iowa Student Loan

Building Time Management Skills

Students of all ages need good time management skills to balance school, homework, activities, family responsibilities and just having fun. Here are some tips for building effective time management practices to last through college and beyond.

Figure Out What Has to be Done

  • Make a list of everything that’s required, such as sleep, school, homework, organized sports and activities, work, and family and household commitments.
  • Add in fun activities.

Determine the Time Commitment for Each Activity

  • Plan for at least eight hours of sleep and a couple of hours for meals and personal care each day.
  • Use classroom materials or talk to teachers to determine adequate time to reserve for studying, projects and other schoolwork.
  • Incorporate additional time for meeting improvement goals.
  • Consider preparation for sporadic events like standardized tests, recitals and conferences.

Block Out Commitments Using a Planner or Calendar

  • Break big projects down into multiple stages instead of just listing a deadline.
  • Color-coding can be a visual cue for the most important items.
  • Ensure new assignments and commitments are recorded daily or as soon as they’re known.

Make a Daily To-do List

  • Put the most challenging or important items at the top to be done first.
  • Think about rewards for completing tasks on the to-do list.
  • Take along portable items, such as a book, notes and flashcards, to stay on track during idle moments.

Be Strategic

  • If procrastination is a problem, find out why. Is extra help with homework needed? Is it an activity that has become less appealing over time?
  • Discover the student’s best working conditions for completing specific tasks. Is it better to do math after school or after dinner? Is running better first thing in the morning or last thing in the evening?
  • Stay organized. A clean environment with all the needed materials at hand helps move things along with fewer distractions.

Develop a Routine

  • Set aside dedicated study time every day, even if the time of day must change periodically for seasonal or special activities.
  • Be consistent to reach short- and long-term goals.

Set Priorities and Resolve Conflicts

  • Remember that it’s important to set aside time to recharge and relax. Some students need time to read, be with friends, exercise, play games or enjoy other recreational pursuits.
  • Understand the consequences for not getting something done to help prioritize the most important items.
  • Approaching a coach or teacher with alternatives sometimes helps resolve conflicts, but understand that as pressures and commitments build, something may need to be dropped.

By: Iowa Student Loan

10 Things You Need to Complete the FAFSA

10thingscompletefafsa

With the FAFSA, or Free Application for Federal Student Aid, open soon, it’s a good time to plan a little time to complete it. Before you start, make sure you have these items available if they are applicable to you.

10 Things You Need to Complete the FAFSA

 

Item Dependent Students Parents
List of schools you wish to send FAFSA results to

X

FSA ID username and password

X

X

Biographical information like Social Security number, drivers license number, birthdate, marriage and divorce dates

X

X

Alien registration number for non-citizens

X

X

2017 income tax returns, W-2s and other records of money earned in 2017

X

X

2017 bank statements and investment records

X

X

2017 untaxed income records

X

X

2017 businesses and farms records

X

X

Child support received or paid

X

X

Marriage status and date of separation or divorce

X

X

By: Iowa Student Loan

FAFSA: What You Need to Know

If college is in the picture for the 2019–2020 academic year, it is almost the time to file the FAFSA, or Free Application for Federal Student Aid. Here are answers to some of the most important questions about the FAFSA.

Why should I file the FAFSA?

Regardless of financial situation, filing the FAFSA is the first step to qualifying for many forms of aid, not just those based on income. Federal Student Aid’s Myths About Financial Aid (PDF) provides more information on why all students should submit the FAFSA.

Whose information goes on the FAFSA?

The student who will attend college will provide biographical and financial information on the FAFSA. Dependent students, whether or not they are financially supported by their parents, will need to provide parent or guardian biographical and financial information.

Is the FAFSA only for federal aid?

The federal government uses the income, family size and other information provided on the FAFSA to award federal aid in the form of grants, work-study and loans. You need to file the FAFSA to qualify for federal work-study and federal student loans. In addition, many states and colleges and some private organizations use the information to determine eligibility for grants, scholarships and other aid.

When should I start?

The 2019–2020 FAFSA opens Oct. 1 and is available until June 30, 2019. Some types of aid have limited funds, so the earlier the FAFSA is completed and submitted, the better the chances of receiving more financial aid from those programs.

Remember to complete a new FAFSA the fall before each new college year.

What information will I need?

The student should create an FSA ID to make it easier to complete and access the FAFSA. You can also gather identifying information (Social Security numbers for student and parent, driver’s license number, and Alien Registration number if applicable); federal tax information or returns from 2017; records on any untaxed income; and balances for cash, savings and checking accounts, investments, and business and farm assets for both the student and parents.

Note: You may be able to use the IRS Data Retrieval Tool to pull in applicable tax information while you complete the FAFSA, but this information will not be displayed on the online FAFSA or your Student Aid Report.

If you have any questions on the information you will need to provide, start by reviewing the Completing the FAFSA guide (PDF).

Where do I start?

You can complete your FAFSA online at https://fafsa.gov.

You may also download a PDF form to print and complete or call (877) 433-7827 to request a form be mailed to you. Some colleges may allow you to file your FAFSA at their financial aid office.

Do I need to do it all at one sitting?

You may save the information entered into the FAFSA online if you need to stop before completing it. Then, when you’re ready to finish, log back in to complete the form, sign and submit it.

What will happen next?

Within three weeks after submission, you’ll receive a Student Aid Report, which summarizes the data you submitted. You should review this report carefully and follow the instructions for correcting any mistakes.

Your Student Aid Report will also tell you if you’ve been selected for verification. This is not necessarily an indication that something is wrong; verification may be based on a random selection or because one or more of the schools listed requires all FAFSAs to be verified. If you are selected, follow the instructions to verify your information with the requested documents.

Federal Student Aid also shares the information you submitted with the colleges you listed when you completed the FAFSA, your state and the states of colleges you entered. Each college you have been accepted to will follow its own timeline to send you a financial aid award packet detailing the financial aid available to you if you choose to attend that school.

More information is available from Federal Student Aid.

By: Iowa Student Loan

Addressing Financial Aid Myths

Have you heard that applying for financial aid isn’t worth it because your parents earn too much or because it takes too long to complete? Don’t be tempted by these common myths to skip completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). You could be passing up free money. And that’s the last thing you want to do when it comes to paying for college.

FAFSA-Myths-Image

Financial Aid Myth: You need to have your taxes filed before starting the FAFSA.

The FAFSA now requires tax information from the “prior prior” tax year, so the deadline for filing the required taxes is the April before completing the current FAFSA. If you or your parents missed that tax filing deadline and you still need to file taxes, you should estimate tax and income information for the FAFSA and correct that information by logging in and updating your FAFSA after filing the appropriate tax return. For help with questions about required income information, call (800) FED-AID.

Financial Aid Myth: You won’t receive financial aid because of how much money your parents earn.

Income is not the only determining factor when it comes to whether or not you’re eligible for federal student aid. And there is no income level that automatically disqualifies you for aid. Taking the time to complete the FAFSA is the only way to qualify for federal student aid and you won’t know if you qualify until you do that step, so completing the FAFSA every year you are in school is important.

Also, did you know that the FAFSA is used for more than just federal financial aid? State and school aid is also awarded based on your FAFSA results. If you don’t complete the FAFSA, you could also be missing out on these other sources of financial aid.

Financial Aid Myth: The FAFSA is difficult to complete.

The FAFSA has changed a lot since it was first introduced, and the application is revised often to make the process smoother. The online process uses logic to limit questions to ones that are relevant and completing it online instead of filling out a paper application lessens the chance for mistakes. According to the federal government, completing the FAFSA now takes less than 21 minutes on average. That’s not too bad if the outcome is grants, scholarships and other funds to help lower your college expenses, is it?

Financial Aid Myth: You only need to complete the FAFSA once.

If you complete the FAFSA before starting college, you may think you don’t need to file it ever again. But you should file the FAFSA every year as soon after Oct. 1 as possible if you intend to enroll in classes during the next academic year. This is especially important if your family’s circumstances change because you may be eligible for new or more aid next year. Even if there are no major changes to your family, though, other factors such as how financial need is calculated may mean you are eligible for different options next year. And, once you complete the FAFSA the first time, it will take even less time to complete the following years.

Financial Aid Myth: Your parents are not supporting you financially in college so you don’t have to include their information on the FAFSA.

Unfortunately you may still be considered a dependent student for federal student aid purposes, even if you are paying for all your college expenses yourself. You will need to answer questions in the FAFSA to determine if you are considered a dependent student or an independent student. If you are considered a dependent student, you will need to report your parents’ information on the FAFSA. If you are unsure how what type of student you are, contact your college or university’s financial aid office for assistance.

By: Iowa Student Loan

12 Ways to Get Involved

12-Ways-to-Get-Involved

You may have heard that you’ll have plenty of things to do outside of class once you get to know others in your dorm or classes, but if you’d like to be more involved or if it’s been hard to make connections with other students, think about trying something new.

1. Join (or start) a club

Your school may offer an activities fair or have a special office or website where you can see what clubs exist and get connected with members. Check postings around campus as well. If you don’t find an organization that interests you, consider starting one. It might just take a faculty sponsor or manifesto.

2. Work for the school paper or social media sites

Even if you don’t have a writing background, these organizations are often looking for correspondents and bloggers.

3. Participate in student government

You can choose a level you’re comfortable with — from a floor representative in the dorm to student body president. Explore opportunities to test your leadership skills.

4. Become a tutor or teaching assistant

Put your skills to work and earn some money while meeting other students and faculty.

5. Participate in intramural or club sports

Never played dodge ball? Been awhile since you swung at a softball? Don’t worry; you’ll find all levels of competition and you may find a new activity to love.

6. Look for opportunities to serve your campus and community

Blood drives and classroom outreach are common activities on college campuses and may help you establish connections in the larger community.

7. Join a sorority or fraternity

Greek organizations exist for a variety of purposes, from community service to academic excellence to social and professional aspects.

8. Attend campus events

Go to the big game on Saturday afternoon or the picnic on the quad. If you don’t want to go alone, ask someone from a class or your dorm floor to go with you.

9. Get a campus or community job

Serve coffee in the union or pancakes at the diner.

10. Join a preprofessional organization

Many professional organizations have student societies that can help you achieve experience, network and meet mentors in your field.

11. Participate in research

Whether you become a lab assistant or agree to participate in surveys or studies, research involvement can help you meet others and gain valuable insight.

12. Go to lectures, performances and presentations on campus

Many schools offer special events like author discussions, professional panels, comedian or theatrical performances and guest lectures.

By: Iowa Student Loan

Tips to Study Smarter

Tips-to-Study-Smarter

You’ve probably heard how you have to study more and learn to manage your time better to keep up with college work. It’s easy to say “study smarter,” but how do you actually accomplish that? Try out some of these tips to up your studying game.

Use a daily planner and block off time each day for studying and homework

Whether you have a test or assignment due the next day or not, use that time every day to study. Sticking to the routine will help ingrain the habit of studying well ahead of deadlines.

Review your class notes daily and fill in missing details

You might want to compare notes with a friend to see what each of you picked up on for clues about what is most important or to look for differences to make sure you didn’t miss anything. Don’t wait until the night before a test to look at your notes, they might make no sense weeks after you’ve written them down.

Set goals

If you’re reading a novel for a class, figure out how many chapters you need to read per day to finish on time and aim for that goal each day. Set a goal to memorize 25 new terms a day for weekly tests. Or, plan to concentrate on one math formula so that you understand not only the “how” but the “why” and can complete the formula with several different figures.

Study for 35-45 minutes and then take a break, no more than 10 minutes

Giving your brain and yourself a short break will give you time to digest what you have just reviewed or worked on. Plus, it will help you concentrate better when get back to work.

Try studying in different places

If the weather is nice, think about doing some reading outdoors. Need to really concentrate? Head to the library. If you want to be comfortable, find a good spot in your room; just make sure there are no distractions while you review your class notes. Studying in different places can help reduce boredom.

Do more with the material

Try turning headings into questions and answering them after each section. Or write down answers to focus questions instead of just skimming the questions before reading the sections. You might connect the topic to your own experiences, such as connecting a family vacation at Yellowstone National Park to President Woodrow Wilson creating the National Park Service in 1916, and writing a few notes for yourself. By engaging other areas of your brain, you may remember the material longer than the 30 minutes it takes you to read a chapter.

After tests, compare your notes with what was included in the exam

If your notes included information about what was asked, you’re on the right track. If your notes were lacking details that were covered in a number of questions, don’t be afraid to ask for help or advice from the instructor, a teaching assistant, a tutor or even a friend who is doing well in the class.

Try different study methods to find the one that works best for you

Some students thrive on reviewing flash cards while others need to reread entire chapters of their textbooks. See which method works best for you while your workload is lighter; it will pay off when you have more work to do.

By: Iowa Student Loan

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